Specifically Air Density Separation | An Overview


A material density separator separates materials based on their densities and sizes using a high-velocity air channel with a ballistic trajectory.

Heavy-density materials, such as stones and tramp metal, are separated from the grinding stream of material entering the hammer mill by an air density separator. Mechanical vibration and air fluidization are the two primary components of density separation.

On the basis of one of three particle characteristics: mass, scale, or shape, the Gravity Separator performs a highly sensitive dry separation. The gravity separator is unrivaled in its ability to isolate a complex mixture by density when size and shape are regulated within certain limits. The separation efficiency is also influenced by the relative size and shape of each part of the mixture. Large differences in these material properties can have a significant impact on separation performance.

What is air density separation?

The fact that different minerals have different densities is the basis for density separation. If a mixture of minerals with varying densities is put in a liquid with an intermediate density, grains with densities less than the liquid’s density will float, whereas grains with densities greater than the liquid’s density will sink.

Mineral densities vary from around 2.2 g/cc to as high as 8 g/cc, with silicate minerals typically falling between 2.5 and 3.5 g/cc. Bromoform (density = 2.84 g/cc) and diiodomethane (density = 3.31 g/cc) are suitable liquids for density separation. By dissolving sodium tungstate powder in water, you can make high-density liquids with a variety of densities.

Density separation is also known as heavy liquids separation due to the use of high-density liquids. Separation of heavy liquids is normally performed in separatory funnels. The method is rather clear. The strong liquid is applied to the sample in the separatory funnel. After that, the funnel is left for a while to allow light minerals to float while heavy minerals sink.


The Air Density Separator’s specially engineered control system ensures maximum removal efficiency and allows air to be pulled through an adjustable separation chamber via a curtain. At this regulated separation zone, rocks, knots, and unwanted debris are removed from the material flow, while accepts are conveyed to a cyclone.

Materials are separated when they pass through the separator in the form of an air stream. The heavier materials collapse into a pit under the weight of gravity as they are conveyed over an opening. Lighter materials are fed through the opening into the hammer mill below. There is also an internal magnet to separate ferrous tramp metal from the product stream.

Benefits & Advantages:

The ADS’ ability to cut knots and compressed wood significantly enhances the pulping process and helps eradicate pulping rejects, in addition to preserving downstream machinery.

Because of the highly efficient nature, other process equipment can be placed anywhere, resulting in lower capital costs and easier operation and maintenance.

Each Air Density Separator is individually designed to meet your particular process requirements, reducing energy consumption.

In the end,

We obviously cannot go through the entire list of advantages associated with the use of air density, elutriation, and aspiration technology for bulk material processing companies right now. Air density separation systems are fitted with a porous deck that is inclined and subjected to friction, causing material in contact with the deck surface to convey up the inclined deck surface. Low-pressure air is pushed through the deck to fluidize the dry mixture, lifting the lighter materials off the deck and allowing them to float down the inclination of the deck.

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